Isnin, 22 April 2013

Perundangan mut'ah di Brunei

Perintah Darurat (Undang-Undang Keluarga Islam) 1999 adalah merupakan undang-undang yang khusus memperuntukan tuntutan mut’ah di negara Brunei. Jika Malaysia menggunakan perkataan seksyen negara Brunei menggunakan istilah bab bagi peruntukan didalam undang-undang bertulisnya itu. Manakala istilah ceraian digunakan pula untuk merujuk kepada perkataan sub-seksyen yang digunakan di Malaysia.

Menurut bab 2 (1) Perintah Darurat (Undang-Undang Keluarga Islam) 1991 tersebut ditakrifkan mut’ah itu sebagaimana berikut:

Mut’ah bermakna pemberian yang wajib keatas suami kepada jandanya mengikut Hukum Syara’.

Menurut bab 2 (1) itu juga Hukum Syara’ diberikan takrifnya seperti berikut:

Hukum Syara’ bermakna hukum-hukum menurut mana-mana mazhab yang sah pada pendapat Mahkamah.

Bidangkuasa Mahkamah untuk mengeluarkan Perintah terhadap suami untuk membayar mut’ah kepada jandanya ada diperuntukan oleh bab 57 Perintah Darurat (Undang-Undang Keluarga Islam) 1991 sebagaimana berikut:

57. Pemberian saguhati kepada perempuan
Selain dari haknya untuk memohon nafkah, seseorang perempuan yang telah diceraikan oleh suaminya, boleh memohon pemberian saguhati (mut’ah) kepada Mahkamah, dan Mahkamah boleh, selepas mendengar pihak-pihak itu dan apabila berpuashati bahawa perempuan itu telah diceraikan, memerintahkan suami supaya membayar sejumlah wang sebagaimana yang mungkin wajar dan patut mengikut Hukum Syara’.

Bayaran mut’ah tersebut tidak memberi kesan mahupun menggugurkan hak janda itu kepada apajua bahagian mengenai mas kahwinnya, belanja dan pemberian. Ini dinyatakan didalam bab 58 perundangan tersebut yang memperuntukan:

58. Hak terhadap mas kahwin dan sebagainya tidak akan terjejas
Tiada sebarang apa pun yang terkandung dalam Perintah ini boleh menjejaskan apa-apa hak yang mungkin ada pada seseorang isteri dibawah Hukum Syara’ terhadap mas kahwinnya, belanja dan pemberian kepadanya atau mana-mana bahagian mas kahwin, belanja dan pemberian itu apabila perkahwinannya dibubarkan.

Sabtu, 13 April 2013

Artikal dari Pakistan

Berikut ialah sebuah artikal yang dipetik dari laman web Laman ini adalah mengenai pendapat suatu pasukan pakar mengkaji fatwa di Pakistan. Menurut laman tersebut:

Fatwa Team

In this site, there is a committee of specialists that is responsible for preparing, checking and approving the Fatwa. This committee comprises a group of licentiate graduates from the Islamic University, Al-Imam Muhammad Bin Sa’oud Islamic University in Saudi Arabia, and graduates who studied Islamic sciences from scholars at Mosques and other Islamic educational institutes in Yemen and Mauritania. This special committee is headed by Dr. ‘Abdullah Al-Faqeeh, specialist in Jurisprudence and Arabic language.

Mechanism of Fatwa

The Fatwa in this web site undergoes unique special mechanism in its process: preparing, checking, approving and finalizing its articles. It starts with initiating the Fatwa from one of the prominent scholars in the committee; then goes to the head of the committee for review. In the second stage, however, and once all opinions are agreed upon, it goes for printing. After printing and editing, it goes to the final review in terms of language and content.

Finally, the Fatwa is published on the web. But in case of any differences that may occur in some areas of the Fatwa, the committee sets special meeting to discuss the matter from all possible directions to come up with the best answer that suits the Islamic views.

Doing our meticulous work, we strive to please Allah Almighty, and to arrive to the best solution that is agreed upon by scholars. We take into account, while issuing Fatwa, the legal proofs and the conditions that affect Fatwa in terms of time, place and other matters.

We ask Allah to guide us to the Straight Path and help all the Muslims and their leaders to please Allah in this life and in the Hereafter and forgive our shortcomings.

Mereka berkata di dalam Fatwa No : 86531 bertarikh 18 Ramadhaan 1424 / 13-11-2003 yang bertajuk ‘Mut'ah of a divorced woman’:


What's the punishment of a man who swore by Allah not to tell the secret which his wife told him about, nobody knows about it, and she told her husband as kind of truthfulness to him but he exploited the first chance of quarrel between him and his wife and told his brothers and sisters about it? In other words, he told her secret to everyone to the degree that the matter reached divorce and complicated the situation and they did not accept any reconciliation, and he says, that the family of his wife cheated them of not telling them about that matter which his wife told him about? The man who deserted his wife without giving her any money or asking about her, what religion says about that? What can the wife do?


All perfect praise be to Allah, The Lord of the Worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah, and that Muhammad s.a.w. is His slave and Messenger.

A person should conceal the secret which he is trusted with, according to the saying of the Prophet s.a.w.:

"There is no trust for a person who does not keep the secret, and there is no religion for a person who has no promise." [Ahmed] Moreover, the Prophet s.a.w. said: "If a person reports something and then goes away, then this is considered as a trust". [Abu Daawood and At-Tirmithi]

However, if anybody knows that a third party could be harmed, then he is obliged to inform him in order to prevent the harm from occurring. In this case, it is permissible for you to reveal the secret.
For example, if a person informs someone that he is going to harm another person -without any right- and asks him to keep the secret, then there is no harm to warn the person going to be subjected to that harm.

This is not with the view of backbiting or breaking their relationship, but with the view of advising and warning; even if he swears not to inform anybody with what he is trusted with. In this case, he must expiate for the oath that he made which is to feed ten poor people, or clothe them, or to free a slave, and if he cannot find any of these, then he must fast for three days. Allah Says (what means):

{Allah will not impose blame upon you for what is meaningless in your oaths, but He will impose blame upon you for [breaking] what you intended of oaths. So its expiation is the feeding of ten needy people from the average of that which you feed your [own] families or clothing them or the freeing of a slave. But whoever cannot find [or afford it] — then a fast of three days [is required]. That is the expiation for oaths when you have sworn. But guard your oaths. Thus does Allah make clear to you His verses [i.e. revealed law] that you may be grateful ...} [Quran 5:89]

On the other hand, the jurists agreed that a divorced woman is legally entitled to be maintained, which is that the husband divorcing her is obliged to provide her with money (or wealth) in order to please her.

The basis for this is the Saying of Allah (which means):

{There is no blame upon you if you divorce women you have not touched nor specified for them an obligation. But give them [a gift of] compensation-the wealthy according to his capability and the poor according to his capability – a provision according to what is acceptable, a duty upon the doers of good.} [Quran 2:236]

However, the scholars differed in opinion whether the meaning of the order in the verse is an obligation or just a preference.

One group (of scholars) advances one opinion and the second group favours another opinion. 

Al-Qurtubi said  in his Tafseer  (interpretation of the Quran) that the scholars differed regarding the pronoun (them); to whom does it refer to exactly among the women? Ibn 'Abbaas , Ibn 'Umar, Jaabir Bin Zayd, Al-Hassan, Ash-Shaafi'i, Ahmed, Ataa', Is-haaq and the scholars of the Hanafi School of jurisprudence, said: "to bestow on them a suitable gift", is compulsory upon the husband to give to the wife whom he divorced before having sexual intercourse and before specifying a dowry for her, and this is desirable for other divorcees. 

Imam Malik and the scholars of his School said: 
"Bestowing a suitable gift is preferable for every divorced woman, even if the husband had already had sex with her. However, if he did not have sex with her and he had fixed a dowry for her, then she is entitled to half of the dowry which he had fixed for her and he is not, to provide her with any gift."

However, if the marriage is dissolved, there is no gift for the woman according to the Maliki School of jurisprudence, basing their opinion on the Saying of Allah:

{And for divorced women is a provision according to what is acceptable- a duty upon the righteous.} [Quran 2:241]

Nonetheless, the scholars of the Hanafi School are of the view that maintenance must be provided for such women.

We should like to draw your attention to the two following matters:

1.   The scholars differed in opinion regarding the gift (for a divorced woman). Some of them say that the highest gift is to provide her with a servant, clothing, and food. And some of them say that the lowest provision would be a dress and a veil. However others say that there is no maximum and no minimum for it. Perhaps, this last opinion is the correct one as it corresponds to the meaning of the verse:

{But give them [a gift of] compensation-the wealthy according to his capability and the poor according to his capability.} [Quran 2:236]

2. This gift is not dropped because of ignorance; even after many years had passed, let's say after the re-marriage of the wife or her death.

Finally, we advise you to avail of pious and righteous persons to reconcile between this wife and her former husband, hoping that they may both forget what had happened and start a new marital life.

Peruntukan undang-undang di Singapura mengenai tuntutan MUT'AH.

Laman web Mahkamah Syariah Singapura adalah:


Mahkamah Syariah Singapura mempunyai bidang kuasa yang tertentu sahaja dalam menerima aduan dan membicarakan kes pengaduan. Bidang kuasa ini diperuntukkan dalam seksyen 35 Undang-Undang Pentadbiran Hukum Islam (AMLA) Singapura yang menyatakan:

35 (1 ) - Mahkamah ini akan mempunyai kehakiman di seluruh Singapura

35 (2) - Mahkamah akan mendengar dan memutuskan segala tindakan-tindakan dan perkara-perkara dalam mana semua pihak yang terlibat adalah orang-orang Islam atau di mana pihak-pihak yang terlibat telah berkahwin menurut syarat-syarat dalam hukum Islam dan tindakan-tindakan dan perkara-perkara itu terbit daripada pertikaian berkaitan dengan :

             i.       Perkahwinan;
ii.      Perceraian yang diketahui dalam hukum Islam sebagai Fasakh, Cerai Taklik, Khulu' dan Talak.
iii. Pertunangan, tidak sahnya perkahwinan atau perpisahan menerusi kuasa kehakiman.
iv.    Pemberesan atau pembahagian harta manakala bercerai atau
v.       Pembayaran maskahwin, nafkah dan mut'ah.

Mut'ah ialah pemberian kepada bekas isteri sebagai hadiah saguhati perceraian di bawah seksyen 52 (3) (b) Akta Pentadbiran Undang-Undang Islam (AMLA).

Rencana ringkas dalam laman web tersebut diatas menyatakan:

Mut'ah itu boleh berbentuk pakaian, barang-barang atau wang sesuai dengan keadaan dan kedudukan suami. Islam tidak menetapkan kadar mengenai Mut'ah ini. Dasar penetapannya bergantung kepada keredhaan dan persetujuan suami isteri. Walau bagaimanapun, jika kadarnya menjadi pertelingkahan suami isteri, maka Mahkamah Syariah akan memutuskan kadar yang patut berdasarkan kemampuan suami.

Dalam Islam pemberian Mut'ah ini bertujuan:

1.   Seseorang isteri lazimnya bergantung hidup kepada suami. Oleh itu apabila ada pemberian Mutaah ini, maka bekas isteri bolehlah menggunakannya sebagai modal untk berdikari dan memulakan hidup baru selepas bercerai.

2.   Menghilangkan rasa malu dan prasangka buruk terhadap isteri. Pada kebiasaaannya terdapat anggapan masyarakat bahawa seseorang wanita yang diceraikan kerana ada sesuatu aib pada dirinya. Oleh itu pemberian Mut'ah itu bermakna perceraian itu bukan berpunca dari bekas isteri.

3.   Untuk menentukan perceraian itu dibuat secara baik dan sebagai penghargaan suami terhadap isteri atas sumbangan dan peranan yang diberikan oleh isteri.

Mengenai tuntutan mut’ah diperturunkan disini peruntukan seksyen 52 dan 53 AMLA tersebut dalam bahasa Inggeris yang diambil terus dari statut yang berkenaan:

52. Provisions consequent on matrimonial proceedings

(1)  ...
(2)  A woman who has been divorced by her husband may apply to the Court for a consolatory gift or mutaah and the Court may, after hearing the parties, order payment of such sum as may be just and in accordance with the Muslim law.
(3)  The Court may, at any stage of the proceedings for divorce or nullity of marriage or after making a decree or order for divorce or nullity of marriage, or after any divorce has been registered under section 102 before 1st March 2009, on the application of any party, make such orders as it thinks fit with respect to —

(a) the payment of emas kahwin and marriage expenses (hantaran belanja) to the wife;
(b)  the payment of a consolatory gift or mutaah to the wife;
(c)   ...; and
(d)   ...

53. Enforcement of order

(1)  Where the Court has made any of the following orders, whether before, on or after 1st March 2009, such order may be treated as a maintenance order made by a District Court under the Women’s Charter (Cap. 353), including a maintenance order for the purposes of Part IX of the Women’s Charter, solely for the purpose of the enforcement of that order by the District Court:
(a) ...
(b) an order for the payment of a consolatory gift or mutaah under section 52(2) or (3)(b);
(c)  ...

(2)  ...
(3)  For the purposes of subsection (1), the provisions of the Women’s Charter (Cap. 353) shall apply, with the necessary modifications, to the enforcement of any order of the Court referred to in that subsection by the District Court. [29/2008]
(4)  A District Court shall have jurisdiction to enforce any order in accordance with this section regardless of the monetary amount involved. [20/99; 29/2008]
(5)  ...
(6)  Where, on or after the commencement of proceedings in a District Court for the enforcement of an order made by the Syariah Court pursuant to subsection (1) or (2), a party aggrieved by that order has made any application under section 55 or commenced any proceedings in any court affecting that order, the District Court may, on its own motion or on the application of any party, stay the proceedings for the enforcement of that order on such terms as it thinks fit.